Self-determination Movement of Kabylia (MAK) – Kabylia Independence Project (PIK)

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Kabylia Independence Project (PIK)


  1. Considering the identity and personality of Kabyle people shaped and affirmed over centuries through a language, a culture, and a civilization emanated from the Amzigh large family, a collective consciousness, a common history, a sociopolitical organization and secular attachment to universal values like democracy, liberty, secularism, solidarity, and respect for others,
  2. Considering historical reality affirming that Kabylia was independent until 1857, even from Algeria as a colonial country, invented on an executive order by the French minister of war, on 14th October1839, since which it was annexed with force, despite Kabylia insurrection on1871,
    Since French colonization, history retains throughout this period the heroic resistance of Kabyle people against all foreign dominations. First time, it was against French invader during; among them, the battle of Icherriden in 1857, insurrection of 1871, and Algeria War (1954-1962), then against its avatar, the postcolonial Algeria. As long as, Kabyle people is not independent, they will fight again and again to regain it.
    Since 1962, Kabyle people are always fighting, throughout the following revolts:
  • Kabylia war against postcolonial Algeria postcolonial (1963-1965),
  • At Yiratan riots, on June 1974,
  • The revolution of 1980, known as “Berber Spring”,
  • Berber cultural movement (BCM),
  • Violent repression of the riots in Vgayet (Bejaia) on May 21st, 1981,
  • Human rights league creation in 1985, which led to the arrest of the Kabyle activists
  • One-year school boycott (1994-1995),
  • Popular revolt after assassination of the Kabyle singer Matoub Lounes, on June 25th, 1998,
  • The three-years bloody revolt from 2001 to 2003, called “the kabyle dark spring”, in which Algerian regime shot with real bullets peaceful and unarmed protesters that made more than 7000 victims, including 130 dead, and 1200 disabled for life,
  • The foundation of MAK “Kabyle “Self-Determination Movement” in 2001,
  • The foundation of the Kabylia Provisional Government (Anavad) in exile, on June 1st, 2010,
  • The filing of a memorandum for self-determination of Kabylia, on September 28th, 2017 at the United Nations New York headquarters.

All these facts are the last episodes structuring the struggle of Kabylia people for his independence.

  1. Considering the contribution of Kabyle people to universal cultural patrimony, to the liberation of Europe against Nazism, and Fascism, and the involvement of his diaspora against anti-Semitic policy of the Government of Vichy,
  2. Considering the forefront role taken by Kabylia in nationalists’ movements in North Africa, and anticolonial war in which she was massively engaged, in order to snatch and wrest her own independence, and the freedom of the Algerians’ allies,
  3. Considering the Soummam’s congress (1956) which has promoted the freedom of autonomous action principle for the historical Provinces like Kabylia (Province III),
  4. Considering exclusion of the “Kabylity” (Taqvaylit), and its dissolution in the “Algerianity” conception mainly Arab and Islamic, added to that, official discriminations in all areas and domains, targeting Kabyle people since Evian’s Agreements to nowadays,
  5. Considering the Algerian foreign policy, in total contradiction with the values and aspirations of Kabyle people, and with Kabylia’s interests,
  6. Considering the Algerian isolation policy against Kabylia, the popular uprisings which saddened Kabylia, from 1963 to “the Dark Spring” between 2001 to 2003, including “ The Amazigh Spring of 1980”, “ The Spring of 1981”, “ The school boycott of 1994-1995”, the popular revolt stemmed from Matoub Lounes assassination, numerous protests marches of Kabyle people against Algeria and the most and huge emblematic one which has gathered more than 2 millions of protestors. It took place from Kabylia to Algiers on June 14th, 2001,
  7. Considering the final break between Kabylia and then Algerian state due to a systematic recourse of the latter to political assassination, and bloody repression; considering usage of weapons of war, every time Kabylia people express their right to equity, and justice, their attachment to their millennium identity. This is happening now since a half-century,
  8. bis. Considering the unsafe and unsecure situation in which Kabylia has been left since 1997, contrasting with Algerian’s military presence, which facilitated kidnapping of local entrepreneurs, and prosperity of Islamist terrorists that are foreign to Kabylia,
  9. ter. Considering real facts of discriminatory taxation against Kabylia economy,
  10. Considering the rejection of Kabyle people of all Algerian Constitutions, of the so supposed independent since 1962, and the massive rejection of all elections and polls: Locals, parliamentary, and presidential,
  11. Considering the reemergence of the Kabylian “Archs” as a citizen movement limited to Kabylia, and the platform of El- Ekseur whose full satisfaction could only be concretely achieved only in a context of Kabylia as an independent state,
  12. Considering that each existing State all over the world is a natural product of the history of its own people,
  13. Considering the global worldwide geopolitical reconfiguration after the fall of Berlin Wall, and the emergence of new countries,
  14. Considering:
  • The Charter of the United Nations,
  • The Universal Declaration of human rights – United Nations,
  • The Fribourg Declaration on cultural rights,
  • The International Covenant on civil and political rights – December 16th, 1966,
  • The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights – December 16th, 1966,
  • The Universal Declaration on the Rights of Peoples – Algiers July 4th, 1976,
  • The African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights
  • The United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples – September 13th, 2007,
  1. Considering Resolution 25 of October 24Th, 1970, entitled “DECLARATION ON PRINCIPLES OF INTERNATIONAL LAW FRIENDLY RELATIONS AND CO-OPERATION AMONG STATES IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE CHARTER OF THE UNITED NATIONS”, and stating that “ the establishment of a sovereign and independent State, free association or integration with an independent State, or the acquisition of any other political status freely decided by a people, constitute means for this people to exercise their right to self-determination”,
  2. Considering that Kabylia fulfills all the criteria required for accession to the status of an independent State sitting within the United Nations Organization,
  3. For the sake of:
  • To Ensure the sustainability and prosperity of Kabylia, as a Nation, currently threatened by the racist and negationist policies of Algerian State;
  • To stop the permanent, cyclical and dramatic increasing confrontation between Kabylia, and the colonial Algerian State.
    Chapter Ⅰ: Kabyle People
  1. Through their language, their culture, their territory, their socio-political foundations, and their past and recent history, the Kabyle people have forged their own strong identity and personality.
  2. Free women and men, belonging to Amazigh civilization, the Kabyles form a people and a nation. The Kabyle people, with no exception at all, are equal in rights and duties.
  3. Kabylia is the homeland of the Kabyle people. It covers the historical and sociolinguistic space of the Kabylia country ranging from Jijel, Setif, in the east side, from Bordj Bou Arreridj to Tuviret and Sour El Ghozlane, in the south, to Boumerdes, in the west side.
  4. Kabyle is the official language to Kabylia. However, the Kabyle School will teach in all languages necessary for the development of cultural, economic, social and political influence of Kabylia worldwide.
  5. Education will be one of the highest priorities of the independent Kabylia. The Kabyle school will be a place for cultural and scientific influence which will ensure a high quality of instruction guaranteeing good transmission of fundamental knowledge, as well as the optimal development of intellectual capacities of its pupils and students.
    Due to the intrinsic fundamental Kabyle values, and the worldwide open mildness, it will contribute for education and empowerment of Kabyle youth, proud of their identity, imbued with universal values of freedom, democracy, and secularism, which are in total adequacy with Kabyle human and civilizational foundations since dozens of centuries.
  6. Kabylia economic will be open and solidarity based. All initiatives will be freed, released, leveraged within a framework of sustainable development and in compliance with public safety and protection.
    In accordance with the ancestral values and traditions, the economic and social development of the Kabyle Nation will generate its foundations from the genius of its people and its citizens wherever they are, and of its main wealth of soil, subsoil, territorial waters, and its airspace.
    A financial regularly system, and a fair tax system, that will be modern and efficient. This means an expression of Kabylia sovereignty; it will replace Algeria’s structures after results proclamation of the self-determination referendum.
    A regulatory financial system, and a fair efficient and modern tax system, expression of Kabylia sovereignty, will replace the Algerian structures as soon as win results of the self-determination referendum are proclaimed.
  7. Environment will be protected and governed according to the values anchored in the Kabyle culture, respectful of life in all its forms and of collective well-being.
    Kabylia, in accordance with international rules and standards, will exercise its right over its air and sea space.
    The Kabyle State, for the sake of equality and sharing of resources and their benefits, will guarantee its citizens fair access to its natural and maritime spaces.
    Kabylia will exploit its natural resources while respecting the rights of the land, its sustainable development and their renewal.
    Chapter Ⅱ: Values
  8. Independent Kabylia will be ruled with respect to Humans Rights, without distinction of sex, race, language, or religion. Therefore, personal status will only be governed by egalitarian civil laws.
  9. Freedom of conscience and freedom of cult will be guaranteed by the Constitution and respected by the ruling authorities. Secularism will be consecrated there by virtue of the values of freedom and respect, embodied by the ancestral precept of “Jam3 Liman”, (“in the name of all beliefs”). Religions and beliefs will be the private matter and strictly individual domain.
  10. By virtue of its socio-political organization and the ancestral practice of democracy in Kabyle villages, the political system of sovereign Kabylia will be based on confederacies and the universal principles of democracy. Democracy will govern the functioning of all Kabyle institutions, except the security corps.
    Independent Kabylia will guarantee democratic freedoms, alternation principle, limitation and separation of powers.
  11. Kabylia will defend its citizen wherever they are.
  12. Kabylia will remain in active and ongoing solidarity with all Amazigh peoples, with all peoples of Algeria and with all people of the world.
  13. Kabylia, according to its interests, intends and plans to cooperate with all its neighbors and countries all over the world.
    Chapter Ⅲ: Of the Kabylia State
  14. As a people and as a nation, Kabylia will have its own sovereign State founded on the basis of the federalism of its provinces.
  15. Political governance will be practiced in a democratic way, republican and pluralist manner in accordance to Kabyle values and the requirements of modern nations.
  16. The democratically elected Kabyle parliament is required to respect the effective representativeness of all Kabylia. Once elected, the parliament will appoint, based on its political makeup, a chief executive who in turn will form the government.
  17. In addition to the parliament, other needed institutions will be created for the functioning and balance of the institutions of Kabylia: Constitutional Council, Regional Councils, Regional Governments, Archs Council, Senate, as well as various executive control institutions to protect the citizen rights…
  18. The Archs and confederations of Archs, dissolved by the French colonial regime after 1871 uprising revolt, updated, modernized and grouped within new governorates, will resume their natural place in the sociopolitical organization of Kabylia. They will replace institutions imposed by Algiers regime, who took over from the “Specialized Administration Sections” (SAS) of indigenous affairs in French colonialism in Algeria.
    Each village, the basic of institution of Kabylia, will be represented proportionally by the number of its inhabitants, through representatives democratically elected by the basic instance, AGRAW / TAJMAAT.
  19. Independent Kabylia will democratically acquire with its own coat of arms, currency, flag, and its national anthem.
  20. The Kabyle people will exercise their full and entire sovereignty over their territory, over their natural resources and wealth, on both the existing and the ones yet to be discovered.
  21. Defense, the currency issuance, and the definition of foreign policy will be areas of exclusive responsibility and competency of Kabyle people right after the proclamation of independence.

Chapter Ⅳ: Modalities

  1. The independence of Kabylia will be proclaimed after a self-determination referendum which will be organized under the guarantee and control of the international community.
  2. To achieve this, Kabylia will set up, starting from now, all useful institutions to enforce its authority, legislate, manage its security, its economy, its currency, its society and its administration.
  3. Scared by half a century of electoral frauds, falsification of electoral lists, and antidemocratic maneuvers, Anavad and the MAK will ask international instances, as impartial witnesses, to supervise, support and run the implementation of the referendum of self-determination. it will be negotiated, under the aegis and control by these international instances, by representatives (from the entire Kabyle nation, abroad communities included) elected for this purpose during a National Congress, which will be convened, as already, at the initiative of the President of Anavad, after consultation of the decisional institutions under his authority.
  4. The emerging Kabyle State, will be accompanied, if needed, by international instances duly requested for a transitional period of two years maximum.
  5. Finally, a Constituent Assembly will be elected to draft the future Kabyle Constitution based on a constitution draft previously prepared by the Kabyle Provisional Parliament, under the aegis of Anavad.
Article Categories:
Politics · Self-determination

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